CETA WILL GIVE ACCESS TO 500 MILLION CONSUMERS
The Government of Canada claims that the Canada-EU Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) will give Canadian companies preferential access to 500 million European consumers, a market evaluated at $ 18 trillion . Accordingly, bilateral trade would increase by 20 percent and would increase Canada’s GDP by $ 12 billion a year. This would create nearly 80,000 new jobs and increase the average Canadian household’s annual income by $ 1,000. 
Are these predictions realistic ? What are the business opportunities for transport and maritime companies? In order to answer these questions, this text analyses the figures of Canada’s international trade with the rest of the world and the European Union. It also attempts to estimate the impact of this agreement on transportation and the Canadian marine industry.
1-SUMMERY OF THE AGREEMENT
The CETA is considered a modern and innovative agreement because it covers a wider field of activity and is more permissive than other free trade agreements, such as the WTO’s General Agreement on Trade and Services (GATS) or NAFTA. The main provisions concern directly or indirectly the maritime sector.
1.1 Non-discriminatory rules for the goods, services and public procurement sectors
The rules of the “national treatment” and the “most favored nation” are maintained for both the goods sector and the service sector. The first rule requires equal treatment between foreign firms and local businesses. The second rule provides that the signatory parties must give each other at least the same advantages as they would accord to a third State.
CETA also provides that Parties may not adopt or maintain measures to limit the number of enterprises, the value of transactions, the number of transactions or natural persons, and the participation of foreign capital.
1.2 Elimination of tariffs and
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Context of the Conference
On June 15 in Detroit, Michigan, United States governors and premiers of Canadian provinces made public the first “regional strategy” designed to increase shipping in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence river. This strategy proposes an integrated vision of the maritime system of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence and calls for better coordination of decisions between different jurisdictions and cooperation.
It plan to double marine trade, reduce the environmental footprint of the transport network in the region and support its industrial core. The strategy is expected to boost the regional economy by 5 000 billion US $ and create jobs in all regions.
The Conference of Governors and Premiers of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence (Conference) is a North American organization created in 1983 to encourage and facilitate environmentally responsible economic development in this region. Its action aims to promote regional cooperation agreements on issues of common interest, including the protection and restoration of the Great Lakes, water management, control of invasive species, international trade and the economic development the development of the maritime economy and tourism.
The work of the Conference concerns environmental protection and also economic development. In 2009, in order to highlight environnemental priorities, President Barack Obama launched a restoration program with a fund of US $ 2 billion.
The nine key environmental priorities are the follwing:
- Ensure the region’s prosperity by growing the economy and creating jobs through the efficient use of the Great Lakes – St. Lawrence River maritime system.
- Maintain and continuously improve a world-class regional transportation network with an integrated maritime system.
- Establish a regional framework for achieving shared objectives, launching collaborative initiatives and leveraging funding opportunities for the maritime transportation system.
- Improve the efficiency, competitiveness and resiliency of maritime transportation and the region’s multimodal
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By 2015, a lower demand for natural resources has had a considerable impact on the volume of cargo handled at Canadian port authorities. There is a slowdown in activities in almost all port sites. However, this decrease has been more pronounced for 2016.
To understand the differences and determine cause of the declines, we will present an analysis of the activities of three Canadian port authorities; those of Vancouver, Montreal and Quebec City. In this regard, a composite indices measuring the Canadian port activity have been developed. These indices are based on trends in the international trade of over 50 products shipped to Canada (see annex to this article) and reflect the handling of volumes of industry trends. They can be used for comparisons, forecasts and calculations of optimization under constraints. Graphics that accompany the text illustrate both indices obtained from the actual data in the annual reports of the port authorities, and forecasts of the indices that have been developed.
ANALYSIS OF PORT SITUATIONS
The port of Vancouver
The port of metro Vancouver is the largest port in Canada and one a major exporter of coal, minerals and wood products. In 2011, handled products, (including containerized products) grew from 122 million metric tons (mt) to 138 mt. It is the third most important port in North America, after South Louisiana (242 mt) and Houston (216 mt). The port of Vancouver metro ranks higher than the port of New York (120 mt). 80% of handled volumes are exported compared to 20% for imports.
Other major shipments from the port of Vancouver are (10.8 mt) wheat, cereals including canola (6 mt), large quantities of sulphur (2.6 mt), potash (8.7 mt), coal (35 mt), crude oil (1.96 mt) and forest (23 mt) products.
The decline that is indicated by the index, between … Lire la suite